Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cases of cancer related mortality.
Breast cancers can be divided into two main overarching groups: the carcinomas and the sarcomas. Carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial component of the breast. The epithelial component consists of the cells that line the lobules and terminal ducts; under normal conditions, these epithelial cells are responsible for making milk. Carcinomas comprise the vast majority of all breast cancers, and will be further discussed below. Sarcomas are rare cancers that arise from the stromal (connective tissue) components of the breast. These stromal component cells include myofibroblasts and blood vessel cells, and cancers arising from these "supportive" cells include phyllodes tumors and angiosarcoma. Sarcomas account for less than 1% of primary breast cancers.
Breast pathology is a rapidly developing discipline having crucial role in diagnosing breast diseases and in providing prognostic and predictive parameters that guide treatment decision.
Breast pathology plays a central role in the care of patients with diseases of the breast; an accurate, state-of-the-art diagnosis is the cornerstone of any further evaluation and management of the patient.
Breast cancers can be divided into two main overarching groups: the carcinomas and the sarcomas. Carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial component of the breast. The epithelial component consists of the cells that line the lobules and terminal ducts; under normal conditions, these epithelial cells are responsible for making milk. Carcinomas comprise the vast majority of all breast cancers, and will be further discussed below. Sarcomas are rare cancers that arise from the stromal (connective tissue) components of the breast. These stromal component cells include myofibroblasts and blood vessel cells, and cancers arising from these "supportive" cells include phyllodes tumors and angiosarcoma. Sarcomas account for less than 1% of primary breast cancers.
Bosom malignancy is the most well-known growth and second driving instances of disease related mortality.
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Anatomical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues, and whole bodies. Anatomical pathology is itself divided into subfields, the main divisions being surgical pathology, cytopathology, and forensic pathology. Anatomical pathology is one of two main divisions of the medical practice of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and tissues. Sometimes, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology.
Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs and tissues. It is one of two branches of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, the diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and/or tissues.
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by a medical examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Coroners and medical examiners are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Also see forensic medicine. Forensic pathology is an application of medical jurisprudence. A forensic pathologist is a medical doctor who has completed training in anatomical pathology and has subsequently specialized in forensic pathology.
Autopsy pathology is a postmortem examination that thoroughly examines a body after death to help determine the cause of death. Specimens are obtained from the patient during the autopsy procedure. During the gross phase of the autopsy, macroscopic examination and measurements are obtained and noted. Smaller sections of tissue or fluid are isolated and embedded for cutting processes to occur so that the microscopic examination phase can be performed.
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Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine, as well as tissues, using the tools of chemistry, clinical microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology. Clinical pathologists work in close collaboration with medical technologists, hospital administrations, and referring physicians. Clinical pathologists learn to administer a number of visual and microscopic tests and an especially large variety of tests of the biophysical properties of tissue samples involving automated analyzers and cultures. Sometimes the general term "laboratory medicine specialist" is used to refer to those working in clinical pathology, including medical doctors and doctors of pharmacology.[8] Immunopathology, the study of an organism's immune response to infection, is sometimes considered to fall within the domain of clinical pathology
Clinical pathology covers a wide range of laboratory functions and is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Clinical pathologists are healthcare providers with special training who often direct all of the special divisions of the lab. This may include the blood bank, clinical chemistry and biology, toxicology, hematology, immunology and serology, and microbiology. Clinical pathology also involves maintenance of information systems, research, and quality control.
Chemical pathologists are qualified doctors who combine practical laboratory and clinical skills. They use biochemical laboratory tests to diagnose disease and to manage patients. Chemical pathologists have a detailed understanding of biochemical processes and changes that occur in disease.
Chemical pathology as a sub-speciality within pathology extends across most medical specialities and involves the chemical analysis of bodily fluids (blood - whole blood, serum or plasma; urine; cerebrospinal fluid; and other fluids such as effusions, seminal fluid, sweat and amniotic fluid) to assist in the diagnosis of various disease processes. Laboratory medicine in general and Chemical Pathology in particular is therefore an essential tool to assist clinicians in the diagnosis of various disorders, as well as management and follow-up of patients.
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Oral and maxillofacial pathology is the dental specialty concerned with the nature, clinical and microscopic diagnosis, management and primarily non-surgical treatment of oral disorders. Oral pathologists conduct microscopic examinations of tissues taken from the mouth. These exams can identify the source of a lesion or disease, determine its prognosis and treat it accordingly.
Oral pathology specialists study and research the causes, processes and effects of diseases that start in the mouth or jaw. Oral pathologists generally do not provide direct patient care. Rather, they diagnose cases, using clinical, radiographic, microscopic, biochemical or other examinations, and do biopsies in consultation to dentists and other physicians providing patient care.
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Gynecologic pathology is the medical pathology subspecialty dealing with the study and diagnosis of disease involving the female genital tract. A physician who practices gynecologic pathology is a gynecologic pathologist.
Gynecologic Pathology provides accurate and timely consultation of diagnostic and therapeutic biopsies. Specimens include the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, metastatic nodal disease, and fallopian tubes and ovaries. This service is offered for practicing pathologists desiring assistance with difficult cases, as well as for gynecologists and patients wanting a second opinion.
Reproductive Pathology is deals with the reproductive system of the body. Testicular and ovarian pathology predominantly focus on neoplasm. The testical tumours are derived from germ cells and ovarian tumours are derived from epithelial cells. In pennis and the cervix the squamous carcinoma is caused by HPV. There are three pathologic process acute prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic adenocarcinoma.
Uropathology is the study of pathology which deals with the Urinary tract or urinary system. It is also termed as Urology. Various organs like Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra are involved in the production and excretion of urine. The kidneys function by producing urine to eliminate the liquid waste from the body. Kidney stones can be formed due to the imbalance elimination of minerals and acid salts in the urine.
A case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient, but usually describe an unusual or novel occurrence. Some case reports also contain a literature review of other reported cases.
Pathology majorly deals with cause, mechanism of development, structural alterations of cells or tissue, and the related consequences of changes of an ongoing disease. Clinical and experimental studies on pathological field describes the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in diseases, which reach to the global reader in the form of Pathology case reports, which is having immense importance in the field of medicine.
Veterinary pathology is the science that reviews malady in creatures. The significance of Veterinary pathology is:
Diagnosing malady in buddy creatures, zoo creatures, and natural life. Veterinary pathologists inspect tissues and body liquids to analyse infection and anticipate results.
Diagnosing malady in sustenance creating creatures. Veterinary pathologists keep up crowd wellbeing and build up if there is a hazard to people who handle or devour results of nourishment creatures.
Contributing to medication revelation and security. Veterinary pathologists serve as key individuals from pharmaceutical innovative work groups.
Conducting research. Veterinary pathologists contemplate illnesses of various species and are in this manner particularly fit the bill to perform studies to propel our comprehension of the reason for ailment in creatures and people and in addition studies to grow new strategies to forestall and treat maladies.
Hematopathology is the study of diseases and disorders affecting blood cells, their production, and any organs and tissues involved in hematopoiesis, such as bone marrow, the spleen, and the thymus. Diagnoses and treatment of diseases such as leukemia and lymphoma often deal with hematopathology; techniques and technologies include flow cytometry studies and immunohistochemistry.
All of the hematopathologists provide diagnostic evaluation of tissue and fluids for both University of Michigan patients and clients through the MLabs program.  The interpretive reports include the integration of tissue morphology and ancillary testing such as flow cytometric analysis, molecular diagnostic testing and cytogenetic results. Our hematopathologists typically review over 4,900 tissue cases and over 2,000 fluid and peripheral smears yearly.
Hematopathology also called as hemopathology is the branch of  pathology which deals with the diseases of hematopoietic cells. The study involves Normal Hematopoiesis, Red Cell Disorders, White Cell Disorders. It helps in the treatment of the disease that affects the production of blood and it components. Hematologists also work on oncology with oncologists in the treatment of cancer. There are different disorders affected by hematology ie. anemia, hemophilia, general blood clots, bleeding disorders etc.
Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions as well as thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities (peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal), and a wide range of other body sites.
Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments and cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination. However, cytology samples may be prepared in other ways, including cytocentrifugation.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either surgical biopsies or sometimes whole brains in the case of autopsy. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. In many countries, neuropathology is considered a subfield of anatomical pathology. A physician who specializes in neuropathology, usually by completing a fellowship after a residency in anatomical or general pathology, is called a neuropathologist.
Neuropathology is the investigation of malady of sensory system tissue, ordinarily as either little surgical biopsies or entire body dissections. Neuropathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. It should not be mistaken for neuropathy, which alludes to clutters of the nerves themselves (ordinarily in the fringe sensory system). Neuropathologists are medicinal authorities with skill in the determination of sensory system infections by gross, tiny and atomic examinations.
In day-to-day clinical practice, a neuropathologist is a consultant for other physicians. If a disease of the nervous system is suspected, and the diagnosis cannot be made by less invasive methods, a biopsy of nervous tissue is taken from the brain or spinal cord to aid in diagnosis. Biopsy is usually requested after a mass is detected by medical imaging. With autopsies, the principal work of the neuropathologist is to help in the post-mortem diagnosis of various conditions that affect the central nervous system. Biopsies can also consist of the skin
Surgical pathology is the study of tissues removed from living patients during surgery to help diagnose a disease and determine a treatment plan. Often, the surgical pathologist provides consultation services in a wide variety of organ systems and medical subspecialties. Surgical pathologists provide diagnostic information and/or second opinions
Surgical pathology includes both the physical exam of the tissue with the naked eye, as well as examining processed tissue under a microscope.
Surgical pathology is the most important and tedious area of practice for most anatomical pathologists. Surgical pathology includes microscopic examination of surgical examples, and in addition biopsies put together by surgeons and non-surgeons, such as general internists, restorative subspecialists, dermatologists, and interventional radiologists. The practice of surgical pathology takes into account complete analysis of infection regardless where tissue is surgically removed from a patient. This is generally performed by a mix of naturally visible and minute examination of the tissue, and may include assessments of atomic properties of the tissue by immunohistochemistry or other research tests.
Experimental pathology, also known as investigative pathology is the scientific study of disease processes through the microscopic or molecular examination of organs, tissues, cells, or body fluids from diseased organisms. It is closely related, both historically and in modern academic settings, to the medical field of pathology.
Experimental Pathology will introduce students to the practical methods used to understand the nature and cause of disease.
Experimental Pathology, otherwise called investigative pathology is the logical investigation of decease procedures through the Microscopic or atomic examination of organs, tissues, cells, or body liquids from infected organisms. It is firmly related, both verifiably and in advanced modern settings, to the medicinal field of pathology.
Digital Pathology is the branch of pathology developed in the modern world to study the image-based information environment which is equipped by computer technology which allows the management of information generated from a digital slide. The study involves the practice of converting glass slides into digital slides that is viewed, managed, and analyzed on a computer monitor. This technology is one of the most promising with the advent of Whole-Slide Imaging, the field of digital pathology has exploded as it is better, faster and cheaper diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of cancer and other important diseases.
Digital pathology is a dynamic, image-based environment that enables the acquisition, management and interpretation of pathology information generated from a digitized glass slide.
Digital pathology is rapidly gaining momentum as a proven and essential technology; with specific support for education, tissue based research, drug development, and the practice of human pathology throughout the world.  It is an innovation committed to the reduction of laboratory expenses, an improvement of operational efficiency, enhanced productivity, and improving treatment decisions and patient care.
Telepathology is the practice of pathology at a distance. It uses telecommunications technology to facilitate the transfer of image-rich pathology data between distant locations for the purposes of diagnosis, education, and research. Performance of telepathology requires that a pathologist selects the video images for analysis and the rendering of diagnoses.
The use of telecommunications technology to facilitate the transfer of image-rich pathology data between remote locations for the purposes of diagnosis, education, and research.
Diagnostic pathology is a term used to portray a wide number of laboratory tests. In general, it alludes the studies of tissues collected from the body under a microscope to diagnose or  analyze and specialists call it, "pathology". In this sense, it may be utilized to depict  by looking the cells of the cervix after a Pap smear to check for confirmation of growth or infection. It may likewise be utilized to portray taking a sample at an example of skin tissue collected on a biopsy to check for proof of skin disease. There are a wide range of employments for analytic pathology.
The Pediatric and Perinatal Pathology Department of Pathology focuses on the study of the placenta, fetus, and neonate.
Paediatric pathology is similar to histopathology, but slanted towards children. Many of the diseases they present are different from diseases in adults, and some of the changes can be delicate. Paediatric pathology is generally based in specialist children's hospitals which are tertiary referral centres, so the scope of diseases is large and cases can be quite challenging.
Perinatal pathology is the study of the fetus and the newborn. A perinatal pathologist is concerned to have practiced knowledge with normal fetal development, congenital abnormalities, and problems during pregnancy, labour, and early neonatal life.
The Head and Neck/Endocrine Pathology Unit of the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology focuses on mucosal and mesenchymal lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract  as well as lesions of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, eye and orbit, and other sites.
Head and Neck Pathology provides comprehensive consultative expertise and services relating to disorders of the head and neck regions, including salivary glands and nasal sinuses
The Head and Neck Pathology Service provides comprehensive diagnostic expertise and services relating to the pathology of disorders of the head and neck regions including thyroid and parathyroid. Both surgical and cytopathology specimens are accepted. In addition to evaluation by conventional histology or cytology, a variety of specialized immunological and molecular tests are routinely available.
Microbial pathology is the study of the molecular mechanisms employed by microbes to cause sickness in humans and animals. Bacterial, protozoan, plant life and infectious agent pathogens have evolved a good form of tools to ascertain themselves within the host and gain nutrients that conjointly cause harm and sickness.
Microbial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which different microbes cause infectious diseases in human body. It includes both cellular and molecular level interactions between the pathogens and the host tissue. These interactions leads to immune response in the host body
The Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch (IDPB) is the primary unit within CDC responsible for conducting laboratory studies and investigations of infectious disease of unknown etiologies. Additionally, IDPB works to identify new or previously unrecognized pathogens.
Research within the Infectious Disease focus ranges from studies of pathogen structure and biology to the investigation of pathogenetic mechanisms in the context of animal and cell culture models, and also includes translational studies that connect these models to human disease
Dermatopathology is the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic level, which also involves studying potential causes of skin, nail or hair disorders at the cellular level.
The subspecialty of dermatopathology is a combination of both dermatology (the diagnosis and treatment of skin, hair and nail diseases) and pathology (identification of diseases microscopically). It also helps in analyzing the skin diseases at basic level.
Dermatologists recognize skin diseases based on their appearances and behaviour. Additional specialized testing’s are done using flow cytometry molecular-pathologic analysis & electron microscopy.
Dermatopathology cases may include melanoma, and other skin disorders; immunologic, infectious and pediatric diseases.
Dermatopathologists provide a personal, consultative service to your physician, which includes analyzing your medical information in conjunction with observations through the microscope
Liver pathology deals with the study of hepatic diseases which includes hepatitis virus, cirrhosis, etc. Hepatic pathologists, radiologists are quite good and sort out many types of Hepatic lesions. Liver occupies the main functioning in filtering the blood from digestive system passing throughout the body parts. Some of the viruses can be transmitted during birth and also through contact with the infected blood such as Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. Approximately 75% are native liver biopsies or excisions, and the remainder are transplant biopsies or explants.
Gastrointestinal pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract and accessory organs, such as the pancreas and liver.
Histopathology is the diagnosis and study of diseases of the tissues, and involves examining tissues or cells under a microscope. Histopathologists are responsible for making tissue diagnoses and helping clinicians manage a patient’s care.
Histopathologists provide a diagnostic service for cancer; they handle the cells and tissues removed from suspicious ‘lumps and bumps’, identify the nature of the abnormality and, if malignant, provide information to the clinician about the type of cancer, its grade and, for some cancers, its responsiveness to certain treatments.
Depending on his or her specialist training and main area of work, the pathologist may be more accurately referred to as a histopathologist because medical specialists who study and interpret diseased tissues in microscopic detail are histopathologists.
Histopathologists are medical specialists who have broad knowledge and understanding of the pathological and clinical aspects of disease. They work with a wide range of patients and medical conditions as well as with many other medical professionals who have expertise in associated disciplines, as well as with an ever-increasing range and complexity of technologies including some medical imaging equipment such as electron microscopes.
Cytopathology is the study of disease at the cellular level. "Cyto" refers to cell and "pathology" to disease.
Cytopathology is a diagnostic technique that examines cells from various body sites to determine the cause or the nature of disease. The first cytopathology test developed was the Pap test which has been widely utilized in the last 50 years for screening and diagnosing of cervical cancer and its precursors. The Pap test is considered the most successful screening test in medical history.
Cytopathology is the use of specialist diagnostic techniques to examine individual cells extracted from tissues to determine the cause and nature of a disease.
Molecular pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology shares some aspects of practice with both anatomic pathology and clinical pathology, molecular biology, biochemistry, proteomics and genetics, and is sometimes considered a "crossover" discipline. It is multi-disciplinary in nature and focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic aspects of disease.
Molecular pathology is commonly used in diagnosis of cancer and infectious diseases. Techniques are numerous but include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), multiplex PCR, DNA microarray, in situ hybridization, in situ RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing, antibody based immunofluorescence tissue assays, molecular profiling of pathogens, and analysis of bacterial genes for antimicrobial resistance.
It is a scientific discipline that encompasses the development of molecular and genetic approaches to the diagnosis and classification of human diseases, the design and validation of predictive biomarkers for treatment response and disease progression, the susceptibility of individuals of different genetic constitution to develop disorders.
The term “psychopathology” simply refers to the scientific study of mental illness, along with the factors which may contribute or be relevant to such disorders.
The determination of mental health conditions is guided by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which identifies the criteria that must be present in order for mental health practitioners to come to a specific diagnosis.
Causes of mental disorders may fall under various categories such as psychological, social or genetic. The field also examines mental conditions across the lifespan, developmental stages and manifestations, examining the treatments that are effective in treating various manifestations.
Psychopathology is  the scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences.
When it comes to making a diagnosis, there are four themes, or abnormalities, that are considered. These themes are known as “The Four D’s.” They are deviance, distress, dysfunction and anger. These four criteria define the concept of abnormality.
Renal biopsies are assessed routinely by the three modalities of light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. Study of tissues for disease biomarkers are performed in few and selected cases.
Renal Pathology is a sub-specialty of anatomic pathology and thus deals with the kidney diagnosis.  Renal Pathologists, Nephrologists and transplant surgeons closely work together in the diagnosis of renal system. They all together obtain diagnostic which indicate percutaneous renal biopsy.
Renal ailment may influence the glomerulus, tubules and vessels. The renal pathologist study findings from light microscopy, electron microscopy to obtain diagnosis. Renal disease may affect the glomerulus, tubules and vessels
The essential organs of the urinary system are the kidneys, which are bean-formed organs that are found just beneath the rib confine amidst the back. The kidneys expel urea squander item shaped by the breakdown of proteins from the blood through little sifting units called nephrons. Every nephron comprises of a ball framed of little blood vessels, called a glomerulus, and a little tube called a renal tubule. Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it flows through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney. It results into Proliferation, migration, cell differentiation and also induction.
Analysis of these describes about the abnormalities caused in Kidneys & Urinary Tract Pathology.